Overview of artificial intelligence
The computer systems have dramatically changed the way of performing tasks. Artificial intelligence is the branch of creating computers or machines as intelligent as human beings. AI is the way of creating computer systems or machines that can think like humans. The AI research was founded at a workshop held at Dartmouth college in 1956. In the 1940s and 1950s, a good number of scientists began to discuss the possibility of creating an artificial brain like a human brain. Artificial intelligence becomes an academic discipline in 1956.
The Birth of AI
The foundations for the neural network was laid in the year 1943. In 1945 Isaac Asimov coined the term Robotics. In 1950 Alan Turing published a research paper in which he speculated about the possibility of creating machines that think. Alan Turing’s Turing Test is for evaluation of intelligence and he published ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’. In 1951, using the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester, Christopher Strachey wrote a checkers program and Dietrich Prinz wrote one for chess. The Dartmouth Conference of 1956 was organized by Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy. This conference was the moment that AI gained its name, its mission, and is widely considered the birth of AI. In 1956, John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence and also demonstrated the first running AI program at Carnegie Mellon University. In 1958 John McCarthy invents LISP, a programming language used in AI.
There are a lot of programs related to AI that was created between 1956 to 1974. There are a number of programs to enable computers to solve algebra word problems, proving theorems in geometry and learning to speak English were created. The natural language processing was also started to enable AI to allow computers to communicate in natural languages like English. There are some programs like Newell and Simon’s General Problem Solver and Joseph Weizenbaum’s ELIZA appeared to be achieving the goals of problem-solving and the interpretation of spoken language respectively. It was in 1965, Joseph Weizenbaum created an interactive problem that carries on a dialogue in English, which is ELIZA.
Depp Blue VS Garry Kasparov
In 1997, the reigning world chess champion and grandmaster Gary Kasparov has defeated by a computer chess-playing computer program named Deep Blue made by IBM. This is a huge step towards an artificially intelligent decision-making program that defeated a human. In the same year, speech recognition software, developed by Dragon Systems, was implemented on Windows computers. Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM, Deep Blue won its first game against world champion Garry Kasparov in game one of a six-game match on 10 February 1996. However, Kasparov won three and drew two of the following five games, defeating Deep Blue by a score of 4–2. Computer scientists believed that playing chess was a good measurement for the effectiveness of artificial intelligence, and by beating a world champion chess player, IBM showed that they had made significant progress. After the Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov, AI got enough attention and funds from the research community.
We are now living in the age of AI and big data, and machine learning. It is now becoming very difficult to collect large sums of information and processing it. AI has a role in several industries like technology, banking, entertainment, marketing, financial services, etc.