Introduction to Fibre Optics
The study of optical fibers is called fiber optics is a branch of Physics that deals with communication by the transmission of light through fibers of glass or plastic. An optical fiber is a thin fiber of glass or plastic that can carry light from one end to the other. The light enters into the one end of the fiber at the right conditions travels through the fiber and exits from the other end of the fiber. The light will be contained within the fiber and will be guided to the other end without much loss in transmission. Optical fibers sometimes referred to as light guides, as it can carry light to the far end of the fiber.
The light propagates through the fiber through a process known as total internal reflection, light rays beamed into the fiber can propagate to a long distance without any reduction in intensity. Light travels through the optical fiber cable by bouncing off the walls of the fiber repeatedly, the light bounces down the pipe with continued internal mirror-like reflection.
The principle behind fiber optics (guiding of light by refraction) was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. The first working fiber-optic data transmission system was demonstrated by German physicist Manfred Borner at Telefunken Research Labs in Ulm in 1965. In 1968, NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras that were sent to the moon.
Optical fibers have a wide number of applications. They are used as light guides in medical and other applications, optical-fiber lamps are used for illumination in decorative applications, including signs, art, toys, and artificial light trees. Fiber optics are resistant to electronic noise, it has made significant advances in the field of communications. Fiber-optic cables are used in the endoscope, which enables doctors to see through small holes in the body. Medical endoscopes are used for minimal surgical procedures. Fiber optics are also used in bronchoscopes and laparoscopes. Fiber optic cables are highly used in telecommunication applications. Fiber optic cables are used on the internet and video transmission applications.